Croda Lubricants
Leading the way naturally

By Jillian Beyer, Sales Development Specialist, Croda Lubricants | TLT CMF Plus November 2013


Croda is known for its strong reputation in quality and innovation, helping customer’s solve problems by supplying them with high quality products from unique technology platforms. Our corporate commitment to renewability and sustainability enable us to add value with our specialty products.

Croda’s products are targeted to add value in the following areas:
Improved fuel economy
Reduced emissions
Improved equipment durability
Increased production efficiency
Achieve sustainability objectives

Croda’s proven technology platform strengths include:
Ester technology, including multi-functional esters (Priolube™)
Specialty effect additives (Perfad™, Crodacor™, Crodazoline™, and Crodasinic™)
Polymeric surfactants (Hypermer™)
Self-emulsifying surfactants combining lubrication and emulsification into one product
Polyalkylene glycols (Emkarox™)
Polymerized fatty acids (Prisorine™, Pripol™)

Through our application expertise, Croda utilizes its technology platforms to tackle the lubrication needs of today and the performance and legislative targets of the future.

Improved Fuel Efficiency through Friction Modifier Technology
Croda continues to innovate in the area of friction modifiers. We introduced two polymeric organic friction modifiers, Perfad 3000 and Perfad 3050, as high viscosity polymers that deliver unprecedented friction reduction in engine oils. This reduction can contribute to fuel efficiency improvements and emissions reduction. They form stable films under high loads and slow speeds, which result in low friction between moving parts, and in turn can lead to a reduction in wear. They do not contain sulfur, phosphorous, or sulfated ash and will not contribute to after-treatment equipment contamination.

Figure 1 shows friction results based on a Mini-Traction Machine (MTM) at 135°C. On this figure, a reference base oil’s friction curve is plotted to help demonstrate how friction modifiers affect the performance. GMO has a relatively low affect in the boundary lubrication regime. Molybdenum Dialkyldithiocarbamate (MoDTC) is slightly more effective in reducing the traction coefficient in the boundary regime, and as expected, neither GMO or MoDTC perform well in the EHL regime. Croda’s Perfad 3000 dramatically reduces the friction coefficient in the boundary regime and mixed lubrication regimes. Perfad 3050, which is a higher molecular weight polymeric molecule, shows similar friction results throughout the entire speed range.

Figure 1. MTM Base Oil + Friction Modifier, 135°C

The exceptional friction properties for the Perfad 3000 series polymeric friction modifiers is the result of them forming a stable film between the metal surfaces. By using an ultrathin film rig, we can measure film formation over a wide range of speeds. Figure 2 highlights these results, showing that at low speeds, the film thickness of the reference base oil and MoDTC decrease and collapse, whereas Perfad 3000 and Perfad 3050 each form a strong film. GMO also formed a thick film, likely due to the formation of multiple film layers.

Figure 2. Film Thickness by Ultra Thin Film Interferometry

Perfad polymeric friction modifiers can provide extremely low friction coefficients in both the boundary and mixed lubrication regimes. These additives act by forming strong, durable films, and are field proven and used in both racing fluids and high performance engine oils.

Croda also offers Perfad FM 3336 and Perfad FM 3339, which are monomeric friction modifiers that provide thermal stability and fuel economy improvements in engine oils. Figure 3 shows the FEI performance of each. In FEI testing, Perfad FM 3336 gives 2.6% fuel economy improvement at 1.5% treat rate, which is 30% more effective than glycerol monooleate. Results correlate with the HP DSC oxidation induction time results (Figure 4), showing the superior stability of the Perfad FM 3336 and Perfad FM 3339 compared to GMO and Oleamide.

Figure 3. Mercedes M111

Figure 4. HP DSC

Improving Seal Swell Conditioning without Phthalates
Croda has developed bio-based ester technology that functions similarly to phthalate esters currently used in lubricants. Perfad 5000, which is a new bio-based seal swell ester, provides equal or better seal swell performance to phthalates. This ester is made of 100% bio-based raw materials, derived from plant and animal sources and is 100% biodegradable by the OECD 301B standard test.

To evaluate the efficacy of Perfad 5000, a modified ASTM D7216 test was performed to determine automotive engine oil compatibility with typical seal elastomers. The test was run on nitrile, (HNBR-1), fluoroelastomer, (Viton, FKM-1), and polyacrylate rubber seals, (AMC-1). Each test was run for 355 hours at 150°C, with the exception of the nitrile rubber, which was run at 100°C. Figure 5, shows weight change results based on the ASTM D7216 for the nitrile rubber. Neat PAO 4 reduced the weight of the rubber seals by 4.5%. The lowest molecular weight ester, C6-phthalate, performed the best; however, its high volatility and low flash point limit its utility. Perfad 5000 performs better than both the C8-phthalate and C12-phthalate at similar concentrations.

Figure 5. Concentration vs. Weight Change, Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber (HNBR-1), Ester in PAO 4.

Lubricity Additives for Metalworking Fluids
Croda continues to develop cutting edge metalworking additive technology. We offer Perfad 8100 and Perfad 8400 lubricity additives for use in chlorine and metal-free neat metalworking fluids. Croda offers Perfad 3950 and Priolube WSE 3961 for the ultimate performance in synthetics. Figure 6 highlights all four products and for which area they are recommended.

Figure 6. Lubricity Additives for Neat Oils

Perfad 8100 is a non-toxic, chlorine-free additive for use in lubricants and coolants that allows formulators to replace chlorinated paraffin, which continues to receive close regulatory scrutiny. It was designed to improve the lubricity and performance of multi-metal stamping and drawing fluids and is based on highly renewable raw materials. Perfad 8400 enhances the lubrication properties of neat metalworking fluids and can act synergistically with chemically reactive compounds containing phosphorous to boost the performance level of the neat metalworking fluid. Initial screening work also suggests that it will act synergistically with sulfur containing compounds. Perfad 8400 does not contain phosphorous, sulfur or chlorine and is made solely of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

Priolube WSE 3961 is a water soluble ester designed to provide lubricity to aqueous stamping and drawing fluids. When compared to a competitive water soluble ester, a complex ester, and a formulated product typically used in forming applications, the WSE 3961 demonstrated the best performance on aluminum (Figure 7) and good performance on cold-rolled steel. Perfad 3950 is a product that has been successful in the metalworking fluids industry for a number of years, where it continuously out-performs industry-leading commercial products. In addition to superior multi-metal cutting performances, Perfad 3950-based formulations have low foam profiles, excellent bio-resistance, and tramp oil rejection characteristics.

Figure 7.