Gear – A machine part that transmits motion and force by means of successively engaging projections, called teeth. The smaller gear of a pair is called the pinion; the larger, the gear. When the pinion is on the driving shaft, the gear set acts as a speed reducer; when the gear drives, the set acts as a speed multiplier. The basic gear type is the spur gear, or straight-tooth gear, with teeth cut parallel to the gear axis. Spur gears transmit power in applications utilizing parallel shafts. In this type of gear, the teeth mesh along their full length, creating a sudden shift in load from one tooth to the next, with consequent noise and vibration. This problem is overcome by the helical gear, which has teeth cut at an angle to the center of rotation, so that the load is transferred progressively along the length of the tooth from one edge of the gear to the other. When the shafts are not parallel, the most common gear type used is the bevel gear, with teeth cut on a sloping gear face, rather than parallel to the shaft. The spiral bevel gear has teeth cut at an angle to the plane of rotation, which, like the helical gear, reduces vibration and noise. A hypoid gear resembles a spiral bevel gear, except that the pinion is offset so that its axis does not intersect the gear axis; it is widely used in automobiles between the engine driveshaft and the rear axle. Offset of the axes of hypoid gears introduces additional sliding between the teeth, which, when combined with high loads, requires a high-quality EP oil. A worm gear consists of a spirally grooved screw moving against a tooth wheel; in this type of gear, where the load is transmitted across sliding, rather than rolling, surfaces, compounded oils or EP oils are usually necessary to maintain effective lubrication.
Gearbox (Gear Housing) – A casing for gear sets that transmit power from one rotating shaft to another. A gearbox has a number of functions: (1.) it is precisely bored to control gear and shaft alignment, (2.) it contains the gear oil and (3.) it protects the gears and lubricant from water, dust, and other environmental contaminants. Gearboxes are used in a wide range of industrial, automotive and home machinery. Not all gears are enclosed in gearboxes; some are open to the environment and are commonly lubricated by highly adhesive greases.
Gear Oil – high-quality oil with good oxidation stability, load-carrying capacity, rust protection, and resistance to foaming, for service in gear housings and enclosed chain drives. Specially formulated industrial EP gear oils are used where highly loaded gear sets or excessive sliding action (as in worm gears) is encountered.
Grease (Lubricating) – A mixture of a fluid lubricant (usually petroleum oil) and a thickener (usually soap) dispersed in the oil. Because greases do not flow readily, they are used where extended lubrication is required and where oil would not be retained. The thickener plays as important a role as the oil in the lubrication mechanism. Soap thickeners are formed by reacting (saponifying) a metallic hydroxide, or alkali, with a fat, fatty acid, or ester. The type of soap used depends on the grease properties desired. Calcium (lime) soap greases are highly resistant to water, but unstable at high temperatures, so are seldom used any more. Sodium soap greases are stable at high temperatures, but wash out in moist conditions. Lithium soap greases resist both heat and moisture. A mixed-base soap is a combination of soaps, offering some of the advantages of each type. A complex soap is formed by the reaction of an alkali with a high-molecular-weight fat or fatty acid to form a soap, and the simultaneous reaction of the alkali with a short-chain organic or inorganic acid to form a metallic salt (the complexing agent). Complexing agents usually increase the dropping point of grease. Lithium, calcium, and aluminum greases are common alkalis in complex-soap greases. Non-soap thickeners such as clays, silica gels, carbon black, and various synthetic organic materials (especially polyureas) are also used in grease manufacture. Multipurpose greases are designed for different applications. They provide resistance to heat, as well as water, and may contain additives to increase load-carrying ability and inhibit rust.