Engine and Drivetrain Special Program on Electric Vehicles

Session 1C | Monday, May 20, 2019 | 8:00 am - Noon | Room Legends C

Engine and Drivetrain Special Program on Electric Vehicles I

8:00 - 8:30 am
Efficiency and Emission of EVs in Comparison to IC Engines: A Life Cycle Analysis
by Ali Erdemir, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, Kenneth Holmberg, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsinki, Finland


Electric vehicles (EV) are considered as the new paradigm for future transportation needs due to their higher efficiency and lower emissions than traditional internal combustion (IC) engines. While energy losses due to rolling friction, aerodynamics, and braking are inherent in EVs as well, thermal and frictional energy losses are reduced substantially in EVs. We provide a side-by-side comparison of the energy consumption in IC vs EV cars. The energy efficiency for the IC case is about 21% while in the case of EVs, it could be 3.6 times higher (or about 77%). The friction-related losses excluding braking and rolling friction are 16.5% for the IC and only 6% for the EV car. We also carried out lifecycle analyses including not only the tank-to-wheel (mostly related to driving the vehicle), but also the well-to-tank plus the manufacturing, maintenance, and recycling stages thus providing a global picture comparing the overall efficiency and environmental impacts of both cases.

8:30 - 9:00 am
An Insight into E-Mobility

by Dean Tomazic, FEV North America Inc., Auburn Hills, MI

Besides its zero emissions advantage, BEV’s offer excellent drivability at superior efficiency. In contrast to ICE powertrain emissions and fuel economy challenges, BEV’s have to overcome unique design and control challenges as system optimization is targeted over performance based value proposition. Hence, the BEV engineering community is developing novel solutions to optimize thermal management of batteries, E-Motors and power electronics. In this presentation, the authors will provide an insight into ongoing trends in electrified mobility including a deep dive assessment of opportunities and challenges that are ahead of the industry. The presentation will also provide an insight into how the design, controls and calibration are playing a role in BEV powertrain thermal management.


9:00 - 9:30 am
Automotive Fluids for Electrified Vehicles

by Scott Halley, The Lubrizol Corp, Wickliffe, OH

The global focus on vehicle emission and greenhouse gas reductions has created an electrified vehicle spectrum ranging from traditional Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) through to Electric Vehicles; including hybrids, plug-ins, battery electric, and fuel cell powered vehicles. Driveline components and their respective fluids often receive attention as they are the integrators the propulsion system and the wheels. Fluids for these applications need to deliver the proper level of durability with electrical, thermal, and material compatibility properties in mind. Thermal management on electrified vehicles can also present some interesting challenges, particularly for engines and electrical systems. Batteries, for example, operate more efficiently when held within a narrow temperature range, while ICEs on certain electrified vehicles may operate at lower than traditional operating temperatures. Each of these systems can be enhanced using carefully selected fluid technologies.

Session 2C | Monday, May 20, 2019 | 1:30 - 6:00 pm

Engine and Drivetrain Special Program on Electric Vehicles II

1:30 - 2:00 pm
Challenges and Opportunities with Lubricants for HEV/EV Vehicles

by Arup Gangopadhyay, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI

The projected growth of hybrid electric (HEV) and pure electric vehicles (EV) in the near future brings changes in powertrain architectures. Engine, transmission, and axles will be assisted by electric motors and in some applications electric motors will be integrated in the architecture with less or no friction clutches. The electric motors will be in contact with the lubricant and the lubricant is required to cool the motors by taking heat away from it. Therefore, lubricant for electrified powertrains needs to function as an effective coolant, provide corrosion protection to copper windings, laminates, and rare earth magnetic materials while maintaining wear and oxidation protection, and trading off friction stability. This presentation will discuss these requirements and challenge the lubricant industry to meet these.

2:00 - 2:30 pm
New Challenges for Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers From Vehicle Electrification

by Chris Shamie, Schaeffler Group USA, Brighton, MI

The automotive landscape is undergoing unprecedented transformation as vehicle propulsion becomes more and more electrified. What challenges must tribologists and lubrication engineers solve as the takerates for pure internal combustion-powered vehicles fall and hybrids or battery electric vehicles rise? The problems of lubrication from the point-of-view of the gearbox / bearing development community will be presented.

2:30 - 3:00 pm
Chevrolet Bolt Fluid Test Development

by Peter Lee, Dan Worcester, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX

This project sought to evaluate fluid performance by examining the total component efficiency of a 2017 Chevrolet Bolt electric motor gearbox. Using electrical input and mechanical output power instrumentation, the project aim was to determine where the greatest opportunities lie in reducing power losses across the HEV drivetrain component, define a cycle that simulates the component usage in the vehicle and examine the drivetrain component for fluid or part degradation over a defined customer equivalent mileage. The project completed an array of analytical fluid tests on two e-machine compatible fluids to quantify fluid properties that may affect performance of the electric motor. Motor drive electronics and controls were adapted to the Bolt gearbox and measurements of power loss and efficiency were taken for a narrow range of motor output with two compatible fluids. The experience developed within this research is applicable to current e-machines found in hybrid electric vehicles. 

4:00 - 4:30 pm
Newly Developed Lubricants for the Challenges of Electric Drivetrains

by Tobias Bender, Fuchs Lubricants Company, Wedel, Germany, Thomas Kraft, Gerd Jacobs, Erik Schuster, Rolf Luther, Bernhard Hagemann, Fuchs Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim, Germany

After several successes with off-the-shelf fluids, FUCHS is developing a new generation of dedicated EMotive fluids. As lubricants come into contact with many components, they must meet important requirements in terms of tribology and thermal management. With the increasing integration of electric components further special requirements arise for fluids and greases through new materials (e.g. copper, aluminum, and plastics), current-carrying components and high motor speeds. As part of the efforts in this area, FUCHS is currently working on water-based alternatives for transmission oils with a heat capacity that has been almost doubled in comparison to hydrocarbon-based lubricants. Apart from reducing the number of fluids used in an electrical drivetrain, this approach may also cover thermal management needs of the battery while significantly increasing the drivetrain's efficiency. Recent results from the development are presented and advantages and challenges discussed.

4:30 - 5:00 pm
Challenges and Outlooks for Transmission Fluids in Electric Vehicles

by Torsten Murr, Shell Global Solutions GmbH, Hamburg, Germany 

Diverse and clean energy sources can contribute to meeting growing transport needs with reduced CO2 emissions. Electrification will increase significantly and play an important role in the global future transportation. The presentation will explain the drivetrain electrification technology trends and new requirements on transmission fluids. The key properties will be demonstrated to address the challenges which the transmission fluids are facing in the electric vehicle applications. The outlooks for transmission fluids will be discussed for both hybrid and electric vehicles.

5:00 - 5:30 pm
Understanding Base Oils and Lubricants for Electric Drivetrain Applications

by Yungwan Kwak, Atanu Adhvaryu, Xinggao Fang, Christopher Cleveland, Afton Chemical Corporation, Richmond, VA, Susie Hurley, Afton Chemical Limited, Bracknell, United Kingdom

The penetration HEV and EV technology into automotive powertrain designs is an evolving trend resulting from global regulations intended to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants and to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. In many HEV and EV hardware designs, drivetrain fluids contact the integrated electric motor, which requires electrical and thermal properties to be considered in addition to traditional fluid properties. This presentation will discuss new insights gained around electric and thermal properties of drivetrain fluids, with a specific emphasis on understanding the critical impacts of base oils. The successful utilization of this knowledge is demonstrated on a proof-of-principle basis to show that fluids with appropriate electrical and thermal properties can be designed to meet critical factors for electrification such as cooling capacity and electrical conductivity, while still maintaining essential performance features for conventional driveline fluids.

5:30 - 6 pm - Open Discussion